Ko

Create your first list.

A way to share and manage lots.

Cancel
  • Condition Report

    Request Condition Report
  • Provenance

    IAO Gallery, Tokyo
    Acquired from the above by the present owner

  • Catalogue Essay

    Rich ochre quadrants conjoin and interlock over a striking black background in a signature painting by Takeo Yamaguchi, a coveted pioneering figure of the Japanese modern art movement. Yamaguchi singularly created his own language of post-Cubist minimalist painting that has actively shaped definitions of post-war and contemporary Asian art. The imposing yet strict and concise forms of Ko create a sense of limitless expansion as the sculptural weight of the impasto invigorate and ground the work with body and depth, an impression that characterises Yamaguchi’s investigation into non-representational expression. Executed in 1965, the present lot epitomises not only the peak of Yamaguchi’s esteemed career but also a distinctive transition from paintings he produced in the 1960s that illustrate an increase of rectangular planes to works that defined his style in the 1970s, as his abstract shapes gradually dominated the canvas.

    The ebb and flow of Yamaguchi’s career is fascinating from a historical standpoint. Having studied western painting at the Tokyo Art school, Yamaguchi was influenced early on by Cubism’s flat and monochromatic compositions. After graduation in 1927, Yamaguchi moved to Paris to broaden his exposure to European avant-garde styles. “Arriving in Europe, I felt suspicious of what I had been doing up to that point. I started to consider throwing away the past and restarting from scratch,” admits the artist. (Takeo Yamaguchi quoted by Taka Ishii Gallery, accessed October 10, 2018) While naturalistic “western-style” painting attracted many Japanese artists at the time who regarded the technique as a standard to be emulated, Yamaguchi walked his own path and would eventually develop a wholly unique language.

    Through his exchanges with Yuzo Saeki and Ossip Zadkine while in Paris, Yamaguchi began making works fuelled by the aim of apprehending not just the physical appearance, but the underlying substance of objects. He was incredibly moved by Saeki’s intentions of expressing “the personality” intuitively assessed from an object in addition to Zadkine’s interest in the “framework” of objects. Yamaguchi illustrates, “gradually, I put greater and greater value on the real or tangible existence (of the object) and the ability actually to touch it. For this reason, I could do without atmosphere. Well, it became clear that of all the senses touch was the basis (of all understanding).” (Takeo Yamaguchi quoted by Miki Tamon, “Yamaguchi Takeo and Horiuti Masajazu—Two Distinctive Artists," exh. cat. Yamaguchi Takeo, Horiuti Masakazu, National Museum of Modern Art: Tokyo, 1980, p. 19.)

    In 1931, Yamaguchi returned to Tokyo where artists were categorised as either Western or Japanese painters. Dissatisfied with either classification, Yamaguchi submitted work on the recommendation of Ikuma Arishima to the powerful Nika-kai association, one of several alternative art groups that arose out of a need for a more permissive environment in which artists like Yamaguchi could continue working and exhibiting. Excluding the wartime and post-war years, Yamaguchi exhibited with the Nika-kai until 1962. During World War II, Yamaguchi’s creative endeavours were completely bisected as the growth of avant-garde art in Japan diminished to a halt.

    Despite his circumstances, Yamaguchi viewed this moment as an opportune time to completely reinvent his work. The mature style exemplified by Untitled that emerged from this period exhibit pared down forms rendered in a signature palette of ochre yellow and Venetian red arranged against a black backdrop. As portrayed in the present lot, Yamaguchi often implemented a palette knife to move, spread, and carve thick paint to create a captivating texture of swaths and lines of pigment on plywood. In Untitled, Yamaguchi removes extraneous elements from previous works including the narrow black lines he would often apply to juxtapose the coloured planes from the backdrop. Yamaguchi is celebrated for his use of a severely minimal palette of saturated earth tones and geometrical shapes as a method to depict the essential forms found in nature. He explains, “I don’t particularly like geometrical forms for abstract painting. Rather, I deny the use of inorganic things as subject matter even though they easily become abstract configurations and advocate taking as the foundation an expression of a sense of nature, an ordinary sense of beauty.” (Takeo Yamaguchi quoted by Miki Tamon, “Yamaguchi Takeo and Horiuti Masajazu—Two Distinctive Artists," exh. cat. Yamaguchi Takeo, Horiuti Masakazu, National Museum of Modern Art: Tokyo, 1980, p. 19.)

    Far from merely emulating the styles transplanted from Europe to Japan, Yamaguchi deftly configured aspects of Eastern minimalism with western mediums to create a unique visual language that earned him the status of both pioneer and individualist. For his indisputably unique work, he has been selected time after time by prestigious institutions across the globe as a definitive component of all major representations of the development of Japanese art. At the time Untitled was created and as a testament to the high calibre of his work and well-deserved international acclaim, Yamaguchi had shown his work at the São Paolo Biennial (1955, 1964), the Venice Biennale (1956), the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (1956) and the New York Museum of Modern Art (1964). His protégé includes the great Korean artist, Lee Ufan who openly accredits Yamaguchi’s influence on his work and thought. Yamaguchi’s attention to materiality and process has proven to be markedly ahead of his time, while his iconic style continues to resonate with quiet sophistication and unwavering strength.

  • Catalogue Essay

    《無題》之上一片漆黑,塗抹塊塊赭黃,山口長男獨樹一幟的畫風躍然於畫面之中 。山口引領日本當代藝術,為時代的先峰者之一。在眾多後立體派極簡主義畫作當中,山口的作品正是他的獨白。他的作品個性鮮明,推動了亞洲戰後及當代藝術的發展,一次又一次地將其重新定義。《無題》背後的思想縝密,構圖簡明,張力無限。色彩沉厚,仿佛將畫面推入更深層次。這幅作品表現了山口所要表達的一切,看不見摸不著的無形世界。《無題》作於1965年,是山口的藝術生涯巔峰之作,體現自60至70年代山口畫風的獨特轉變軌跡,此時期他的藝術風格奠定,運用越來越多的長方形來成就畫面的主視覺。

    在藝術創作的道路上,山口歷經了種種波瀾。起初,在東京美術學院研習西洋畫時,立體派扁平及極簡的構圖風格打動了山口。自1927年畢業後,山口移居法國巴黎,接觸到了歐洲當時的前衛藝術,擴大了自身對於藝術的感受及體驗。山口說:「自從到了歐洲,我就一直在質疑之前所做的一切。我開始拋棄過去,擁抱未來,重新起步。」(摘自:2018年10月10日山口於Taka Ishii畫廊口述資料)。在日本藝術家還在以「西洋派」自然畫法為標準,相互效仿,彼此競爭之時,山口早已開闢了一條自己的道路,終究塑造出一派獨一無二的藝術語彙。

    在巴黎的日子裡,山口與佐伯祐三、奧斯比·扎德可因彼此切磋交流,他的創作目標開始日漸明朗。山口不僅要通過畫面去理解物質的表象,還要通過畫面透視事物表象之下的現象。佐伯與扎德可因的創作宗旨觸動了山口的內心。佐伯力求通過物件本身將藝術作品的「個性」無聲無息地帶出畫面,扎德可因則專注物件的「架構」。山口說:「漸漸地,我越來越注重強調物件本身的真實及存在感,一種看得見摸得著的感覺。正因這些,我不再受意境的束縛。顯而易見地,在一切感知當中,觸覺才是最真實的。」(摘自:1980年版東京國家當代藝術館出版,三木多門著《獨一無二:山口長男、堀内正和》圖錄第19頁)。

    1931年,山口回到了東京,當時,日本的藝術家被外界定義為「西洋派」或「日系」藝術家。對於這兩類畫派的分門別類,山口心懷不滿。在有島生馬的建議下,山口將作品自薦到頗具影響力的「二科會」。在當時,「二科會」與其它幾個藝術協會為山口這類藝術家提供了較寬鬆的創作環境,在特有的氛圍下,他們持續創作,舉辦畫展。除了戰時及戰後的一段期間,山口一直在「二科會」舉辦畫展,直至1962年。二戰時期,隨著日本前衛藝術的發展逐漸停止,山口的藝術道路也進入了一個分水嶺。

    儘管外在環境艱難,山口將這段時期視作一個徹底審視及改變其創作的契機。《無題》正產於這段時期,其畫風尤顯成熟,漆黑之上塗滿赭黃與朱紅。這幅作品呈現了山口的作畫過程,他用油畫刀將厚厚的油彩在膠合板上推開、塗勻、塑型,創造出迷人色帶,質感豐富,魅力獨具。《無題》抹去了山口的過去,拋棄了無關的元素,包括出現在早期作品上的黑色細線。 通過極簡的大地色調與幾何形狀,山口找到了一條展現大自然之本真的道路。他解釋道: 「我不太喜歡用幾何圖形來表現抽象畫,即使這類無機物為主題很容易成就抽象的配置,我拒絕使用,就算它們能夠自然地展現普通美感表達。」 (摘自:1980年版東京國家當代藝術館出版,三木多門著《獨一無二:山口長男、堀内正和》圖錄第19頁)。

    山口從歐洲將其所學習及貫通的藝術風格帶回日本,巧妙的將西方藝術的媒介和東方極簡主義融合,作品述說著屬於其特有的視覺藝術語言。山口獨一無二,名副其實,不愧為藝術先鋒。毋庸置疑,他的作品一次又一次地被世界知名機構選入,以展現日本藝術的發展歷程。《無題》淋漓盡致地呈現了山口特有的畫風,他的作品備受矚目,曾參展於聖保羅雙年展(1955年,1964年)、威尼斯雙年展(1956年)、古根漢博物館(1956年)、以及紐約當代藝術館(1964年)。與山口比肩齊名的包括南韓藝術家李禹煥,李禹煥曾公開表示他的作品及藝術創作思路深受山口的影響。山口對事物的本質及其發展過程之關注優於他時代中其他同儕,他的標誌性風格,至始至終,低調內斂,充滿力量。

Select Language

English

中文

20

Ko

1965
signed, titled and dated '"Ko" July 1965 Takeo Yamaguchi [in Kanji]' on the reverse
oil on board
90.2 x 91.2 cm. (35 1/2 x 35 7/8 in.)
Executed in July 1965.

Estimate
HK$800,000 - 1,200,000 
€89,800-135,000
$103,000-154,000

Place Advance Bid

Contact Specialist
Jonathan Crockett
Deputy Chairman, Asia and Head of 20th Century & Contemporary Art, Asia
+852 2318 2023

Isaure de Viel Castel
Head of Department
+852 2318 2011

Sandy Ma
Specialist, Head of Evening Sale
+852 2318 2025

20th Century & Contemporary Art Evening Sale

Hong Kong Auction 25 November 2018